Please read the Sections 6 and 7 and answer the following questions
1-Explain Differential Association Theory? What are the basic assumptions of this theory to explain criminality?
2- Explain the Social Learning Theory. Briefly explain what are operant psychology, positive and negative reinforcement, positive and negative punishment and discrimination.
3- Explain Hirschi’s Social Bond theory and four elements of the social bond.
4- Explain Gottfredson and Hirschi’s Low Self-Control Theory.
5-Explain labeling theory. What is the difference between primary and secondary deviance?
6- Explain Sykes and Matza’s Neutralization Theory. What are the five techniques of neutralization? Explain each.
1-Explain Karl Marx’s concept of class struggle and revolution.
2- How does Conflict Theory explain crime and criminality?
3-What is peacemaking criminology and restorative justice?
4- How does feminist criminology explain criminality? Elaborate on generalizability problem and gender ratio problem in this context.
5- Explain masculinization hypothesis and emancipation hypothesis?
6- Explain Power-Control Theory.