NCO Journal 1 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.


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NCO Journal 1 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

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Shaping the Enlisted Force for the Joint All-Domain Task Force Master Sgt. Demetris A. Prewitt United States Army Sergeant Major Academy

“A more lethal, resilient, and rapidly innovating Joint Force, combined with a robust constellation of allies and partners, will sustain American influence and ensure favorable balances of power that safeguard the free and open international order” (Department of Defense, 2018, p. 1).

The 2018 National Defense Strategy may accurate-ly depict the erosion of the United States’ global military hegemony and the rise of China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea (Department of Defense, 2018). A quick-reacting joint all-domain command and control (JADC2) system is necessary to combat emergency scenarios worldwide because of how rapidly military sit- uations can change. This article seeks to build the frame- work for shaping the joint enlisted force to overmatch our adversaries in all domains while operating within a Joint All-Domain Task Force (JADTF).

Conceptualizing the Joint All-Domain Task Force

The U.S. Army is prioritizing the future of warfare in multi-domain operations (U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 2018). To illustrate why JADC2 is so important, Chief of Staff of the Air Force Gen. David Fink describes a hypothetical missile launch from North Korea during the Air and Space Power Conference 2019. Upon initial launch, the supporting command in charge of response actions would be U.S. Forces Korea and U.S. Indo-Pacific Command. As it heads towards space, the

(U.S. Army photo by Spc. Jarel Chugg taken March 26, 2020) A soldier with the Kosovo Security Forces (KSF) dons an Explosive Ordnance Disposal suit assisted by a KSF soldier and a U.S. Army Soldier with the 16th Sustainment Brigade near Prizren, Kosovo, March 26, 2020.

NCO Journal 2 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

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supporting command switches to U.S. Strategic Com- mand. Then, as the missile tips and heads to an allied partner, the supporting command again switches to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command. And if the missile changes its trajectory towards the West Coast of the U.S., the sup- porting command switches to U.S. Northern Command (AirForceTV, 2019). Because of the speed with which joint commands must act, military leaders must lead the enlisted force into a new structure of military operations.

Director of U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center, Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley, stated the current military struc- ture is not practical concerning a response to the threats of Russia and China (U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center, 2020). To combat this, the Army is working with its sister services, allies, and partners to streamline JADC2. According to U.S. Army Futures Command:

JADC2 is a combination of new technology, processes and new organizations that will enable the joint force to converge effects. The Army has several on-going modern- ization efforts to increase interoperability, situational awareness and lethality that will enable any shooter, with any sensor, through any command and control node in near-real time, with the appropriate authorities to employ joint and mission partner effects. (2020, para. 8)

These JADC2 efforts are preparing the U.S. military for future warfare, but joint domain operations don’t be- gin and end exclusively within each domain. To expand JADC2 even further would be to conduct operations without domain boundaries.

A Boundaryless Organization for Boundaryless Operations

Given that future operations will occur without domain boundaries – and consequently, without military branch boundaries – it follows a JADTF will be a bound- aryless organization, which is defined as an organization that is “supposed to transcend the rigid lines of bureau- cracy and divisional boundaries” (Inc., 2020, para. 1).

A boundaryless organization is a fundamental shift from the departmentalization and hierarchy of the current military structure which can, at times, impede vertical and horizontal communications. Becoming a connected and boundaryless JADTF would target enemy forces more rapidly between all branches as well as improve the coordination and logistics of all units within a region.

Joint Forces Component Commands to Joint Domain Commands

The definition of a JADTF suggests the domains

themselves require command and control, not just the joint forces within them. The proposed term joint do- main command (JDC) better reflects future needs of the force because a JDC would plan and conduct all-domain actions in their respective domains while following the guidance and direction of both the combatant and JADTF commander (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017).

In this new construct, instead of having a Joint Forces Maritime Component Command (JFMCC), the JADTF commander would have a Joint Maritime Domain Command (JMDC). The Joint Force Air Com- ponent Command (JFACC) would move to a Joint Air Domain Command (JADC). The same principle would follow for the remaining component commands: Joint Land Domain Command (JLDC), Joint Cyber Domain Command (JCDC), and Joint Space Domain Command (JSDC). The Joint Forces Special Operations Com- ponent Command would be a Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) within the JADTF.

To operate without boundaries, each JDC must be capable and authorized to conduct operations in any do- main using a joint force toward their domain’s objectives. For example, the JADTF headquarters could authorize the JMDC to conduct a cyber mission within the land domain to achieve maritime objectives. Simultaneously, the JLDC, using assets in the air domain, may conduct offensive strikes in the electromagnetic spectrum. Figure 1 illustrates this concept.

Emerging Technologies and Joint All-Domain Command and Control

To become boundaryless, JADTF will require a different command and control (C2) joint function. The foundation of JADC2 is to “network all forces into an effective whole…which will bring together sensors, systems and weapons from different services and nations

(U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Kalie Frantz taken April 30, 2019) U.S. Army aviation crew members with 227th Aviation Regiment, Task Force Lobos, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade conduct pre-flight checks during the Joint Warfighting Assessment at, Hohenfels, Germany, April 30, 2018.

NCO Journal 3 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals/NCO-Journal/

to allow the seamless sharing of information and the convergence of combat power” (Department of Defense, 2020, para. 24). The push for synchronization requires a shift from hardware-centered C2 to software-centered C2, where cloud-storage and sensor synchronization will be the focus. This level of integrated sensory data, global cloud access, and artificial intelligence (AI) available to enlisted service members requires a paradigm shift to prepare the enlisted force for combat.

Reorienting the Enlisted Service Member With JADC2 promising any sensor to any shooter,

the joint force will require more from the enlisted force who, in most cases, is the shooter. The JADTF end-user will manage global, multi-domain data on an adaptive learning mission device incorporated with AI. This reality is different from present-day training which mainly prepares the enlisted force for the bottom three rungs of Bloom’s Taxonomy: remember, understand, and apply.

For example, the U.S. Army’s semi-cen- tralized promotion board to sergeant requires the promotion candidate to remem- ber lists, define terms, and explain basic concepts of the Army (Department of the Army, 2019). In contrast, the technology and concepts of JADC2 will require enlisted service members to operate at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze, evaluate, and create. The standard measures of effective- ness may not have an established precedent

because of the rapid evolution of environments. There are further realities supporting the reorienta-

tion of the enlisted force — namely, the authority for cross-service coordination and utilization of theater assets may take place at the staff sergeant level and below. Therefore, organizations would include enlisted service members into planning staffs and junior enlisted leaders would have a role in formulating and designing plans. This means that junior enlisted leaders should be trained in the following leadership hallmarks to best support the JADTF.

An All-Domain-Capable Enlisted Force – Professional, Perspective, Platforms

Preparation of the enlisted force for JADO should not wait until activation of a JADTF. Leaders should instill their services’ values and ethos into subordi- nates as well as the Joint Enlisted Member Attributes (JEMA). The JEMA are labeled as the three Ps: profes- sional commitment, global perspective, and platforms to excel. These attributes complement the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff ’s enlisted leader attributes (Garamone, 2017). The JEMAs reflect the potential command relationships of a JADTF, technology required to execute JADC2, and the reorientation of

the force to conduct JADO.

Professional Commitment Professional commitment involves allegiance to char-

acter development, independent research and analysis, and holistic fitness.

Character. Each military branch has extensive literature on the values required for service. However, the character component of professional commitment highlights the most basic function of moral character: to recognize the difference between what is ethically right and wrong. This is the first and most foundational element of professional commitment.

Joint Space Domain

Command

Joint Interagency Task Force

Joint All-Domain Task Force

Joint All-Domain Task Force Relationships

Joint Air Domain

Command

Joint Cyber Domain

Command

Joint Maritime Domain

Command

Joint Land Domain

Command

OPCON

Direct Liaison Authorized

Produce new or original work design, assemble, construct, conjecture, develop, formulate, author, investigate

Justify a stand or decision appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, critique, weigh

Draw connections among ideas di�erentiate, organize, relate, compare, contrast, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test

Use information in new situations execute, implement, solve, use, demonstrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch

Explain ideas or concepts classify, describe, discuss, explain, identity, locate, recognize, report, select, translate

Recall facts and basic concepts de�ne, duplicate, list, memorize, repeat, state

remember

understand

apply

analyze

create

evaluate

Bloom’s Taxonomy

(Concept graphic by Master Sgt. Demetris A. Prewitt)

(Graphic courtesy of Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching*)

Figure 1 – Joint All-Domain Task Force Relationships concept model.

Figure 2 – Bloom’s Taxonomy.

NCO Journal 4 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals/NCO-Journal/

Independent Research and Analysis – a Comparison with NFL Fans

With a vast amount of data at the fingertips of every service member, independent research and analysis is a vital component of professional commitment. Leaders must drive the enlisted force toward becoming a “fan of their own sport.” An avid National Football League (NFL) fan doesn’t require anyone to tell them to check box scores, review highlights, or track league standings. In fact, when groups of fans get together, the one with the most “fan-knowledge” is the most respected person in the conversation (McCormick, 2019).

Although sports leagues are designed to generate such devotion, military leaders can also turn the enlisted force into an outfit of military analysts and strategists. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command is a great exam- ple of promoting independent research when they de- veloped a mobile app for identifying enemy equipment. Each weapon system’s entry contains information such as maximum speed, frequency range, and modification options leaders can use as competition between teams and squads (Rominiecki, 2013). This promotes both camaraderie and competitiveness to learn more to beat their teammates as they become experts at their craft.

Holistic Fitness Holistic health and fitness should be a pillar of an

enlisted service member’s professional commitment. It requires physical training, proper sleep and nutrition, and mental and spiritual readiness (Brading, 2019). While leaders can observe physical and mental perfor- mance, mental health is not as discernible and should be prioritized (Dingle et al., 2020).

As a unit, members should celebrate social and family milestones together like birthdays and graduations

as well as integrate team-building exercises into unit activities. This builds a culture of trust and unit cohesion (Lampkin, 2019).

Perspective (Global) Every military member’s decisions have an impact

on every domain. Therefore, Soldiers of all ranks must possess a global perspective that links the strategic environment to the national defense policy documents, down to their commander’s intent and individual train- ing objectives.

The Strategic Environment Every NCO should have an understanding of the

United States’ boldest adversaries: Russia, China, North Korea, Iran, and violent extremist organizations (Hjelmgaard & Brook, 2020). They should know their adversaries’ key leaders, the capabilities they possess, and how they plan to employ those capabilities in warfare.

National Defense Policy Documents The release of the National Security Strategy, National

Defense Strategy, National Military Strategy, theater strate- gic plans, or capstone service documents should trigger professional development sessions for every member in the organization, not just key leaders. Every service mem- ber should know who produces those documents, what the strategies entail, and where to find these documents.

Unit Command Plan The enlisted force must be intimate with their unit’s

command plan. This includes the commander’s mission, vision, priorities, and training guidance. Moreover, they should be able to relay the intent of these documents through each command down to their unit. Finally, they must connect their immediate commander’s training guidance to their individual tasks.

Platforms to Excel Generation Z will be the predominant enlistee pool

from 2020 to 2030 and is the first generation to have grown up completely in the digital era (Moore, 2019). The online realm is where this interconnected genera- tion spends their free time, communicates with family, and receives their entertainment (Patel, 2017). The term platforms, within the context of the JEMAs, refers to the opportunity to initiate action, communication, and collaboration. Leaders must shape both the physical and digital cultures of their workplaces to provide the enlisted force platforms to succeed in their profession.

Physical Culture (In-Person)

Positive group dynamics: This includes respectful, inclusive, and diverse work environments; free of harass-

(NATO photo by Jakub Klepek taken Feb. 4, 2020) U.S. Army Col. Larry V. Geddings, Jr., director of Joint and Army Concepts, U.S. Army Futures Command, briefs senior staff with Allied Land Command, NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Italy, and NATO Rapid Deployable Corps Greece on the Multi-Domain Operations Concept near Izmir, Turkey, Feb. 4, 2020.

NCO Journal 5 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

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ment, hazing, bullying, and unlawful discrimination. Collective intelligence: This refers to teams that are

dispersed yet still self-organized, time-pressured, and collab- orate easily, almost exclusively online. These teams perform together on a wide range of tasks and everyone is part of the solution (Kim et al., 2017).

Adaptive and Authentic Leadership: Talent manag- ers cannot base NCO leadership quality solely on time or rank. Generation Z members base their followership on technical proficiency and communication skills found in adaptive and authentic leadership styles (Laudert, 2018).

Digital Culture (Online Network) A digital communication mechanism with the

command: This can be as simple as a mobile app like the one under development by the 75th Innovation Com- mand (Lacdan, 2020). Unit leaders could use the app to send welcome letters, family readiness information, com- mander’s priorities, training calendars, or local events.

Virtual simulation environments: Given that space, maritime, and cyber assets are most often real-world re- sources, it is nearly impossible for smaller organizations to train in JADO without virtual simulations. Virtual, all-domain battlefields must be available at brigade-sized elements and above.

Knowledge and access to available training resourc- es: Training resources and assets should be common knowledge and easily available to the enlisted force. There should be an online network where leaders can reserve ammo, equipment, and ranges at the click of a button.

Conclusion The future of armed conflict against a near-peer com-

petitor will involve military operations throughout all domains. The concept of JADC2 involves a JADTF giving active members access to any sensor through any C2 node across a globally-integrated cloud. With JADTF as a boundaryless organization, joint forces will require en- listed service members to make national and theater-lev- el decisions in near-real-time, across each domain.

To prepare the enlisted force for operations in the JADTF, U.S. Joint Forces must adopt the JEMAs of professional commitment, global perspective, and plat- forms to excel. With these firmly established throughout the force, there will be a continuity across all military branches for successful JADO.

*All graphics by Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Interna- tional except where otherwise noted. Link to the Creative Commons License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

References

AirForceTV. (2019, September). The future of multi-domain command and control [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be /qKp04e6rUVY

Army Futures Command. (2020). Joint all domain com- mand and control. https://www.army.mil/standto/ar- chive_2020 -02-28/

Brading, T. (2019). ACFT is only one part of Holistic Health and Fitness, experts say. https://www.army.mil/article/227217 /acft_is_only_one_part_of_holistic_health_and_fitness _experts_say

Department of Defense. (2018). Summary of the 2018 national defense strategy of America: Sharpening the American mili- tary’s competitive edge. https://dod.defense .gov/Portals/1/ Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense -Strategy-Sum- mary.pdf

Department of the Army. (2019). Army regulation 600-8-19: Enlisted promotions and reductions. https://armypubs .army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/ARN17424 _R600_8_19_Admin_FINAL.pdf

Department of Defense. (2020). Department of Defense press briefing on the President’s fiscal year 2021 defense budget for the Air Force. https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Tran- scripts/Transcript/Article/2080852/air-force-deputy-assis- tant-secretary-for-budget-office-of-the-assistant-secreta/

Dingle, R. S., Teyhan, D., & Melton, J. (2020). A healthy Soldier is a ready Soldier. https://www.ausa.org/articles/healthy -soldier-ready-soldier

Garamone, J. (2017). SEAC: Educated, empowered enlisted leaders needed in joint environments. https://www.defense.gov/Ex- plore/News/Article/Article/1382822/seac-educated-empow-

(U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Kenneth Burkhart taken April 29, 2019) U.S. Army augmentees for the Multi-Domain Task Force discuss Soldier feedback of new warfighting capabilities being tested during Joint Warfighting Assessment 19 at Yakima Training Center and Joint Base Lewis McCord, Washington, April 29, 2019.

NCO Journal 6 May 2020 NCO Journal provides a forum and publishing opportunity for NCOs, by NCOs, for the open exchange of ideas and information in support of training, education and development.

https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals/NCO-Journal/

ered-enlisted-leaders-needed-in-joint-environments/ Hjelmgaard, K. & Brook, T.V. (2020). Iran, North Korea, Russia:

America’s adversaries emboldened to flex their muscles amid coronavirus. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story /news/world/2020/04/22/us-enemies-coronavirus-covid -19/5163568002/

Inc. (2020). Boundaryless. https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia /boundaryless.html

Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2017). Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. https://www.jcs.mil/Doctrine/Joint -Doctrine-Pubs/Capstone-Series/

Kim, Y.J., Engel, D., Woodley, A.W., Lin, J.Y. , McArthur, N., & Malone, T.W. (2017). What makes a strong team? Using collective intelli- gence to predict team performance in League of Legends. http:// mitsloan.mit.edu/shared/ods/documents/ ?DocumentID=2710

Lampkin, D. R. (2019). The Army’s ready and resilient program. NCO Journal. https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals / NCO-Journal/Archives/2019/April/R2-Program/

Lacdan, J. (2020). Army Reserve mobile app to keep Soldiers connected to units. https://Army.mil/article/233436/army _re- serve_mobile_app_to_keep_soldiers_connected_to _units

Laudert, E. (2018). Generation Z: Utilizing adaptive and au- thentic leadership to promote intergenerational collabora- tion at work. https://digital.sandiego.edu/cgi/viewcontent .cgi?article=1031&context=solesmalscap

McCormack, B. (2019). Rise of fantasy football played big part in league’s growth. Sports Business Journal. https://www .sportsbusinessdaily.com/journal/issues/2019/09/02 / media/fantasy.aspx

Moore, C. C. (2019). Engaging Gen Z. NCO Journal. https:// www.armyupress.army.mil/journals/NCO-journal/archives /2019/august/generation-z/

Patel, D. (2017). 8 ways generation z will differ from millennials in the workplace. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites / deeppatel/2017/09/21/8-ways-generation-z-will-differ -from-millennials-in-the-workplace/#39b69bb776e5

Rominiecki, A. (2013). Combat vehicle ID app means Soldier training on-the-go. https://www.army.mil/article/101081 /combat_vehicle_id_app_means_soldier_training_on _the_go

U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center [Futures and Concepts Center]. (2020, January 27). The future force in multi-domain operations – By LTG Eric Wesley (22 January 2020) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=RItpEV0enYU

U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2018). The U.S. Army in multi-domain operations 2028. https://www .tradoc.army.mil/Portals/14/Documents/MDO/TP525-3-1 _30Nov2018.pdf

Master Sgt. Demetris A. Prewitt is currently a student and international sponsor to New Zealand at the Sergeants Major Academy, Class 70. His previous assignments include first sergeant, Military Intelligence Com- pany, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne); joint intelligence senior enlisted leader, Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Syria; and chief intelligence sergeant, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne). He holds an associate degree in intelligence operations from Cochise College and is currently completing a bachelor’s degree in leadership and workforce development from the Command and General Staff College. He is the incoming operations sergeant major of the 513th Military Intelligence Brigade.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the NCO Journal, the U.S. Army, or the Department of Defense.

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EXPOSITORY ESSAY

Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate an understanding of writing fundamentals and application of APA 6th ed. Guidelines.

Background Information

The expository essay is a genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. This can be accomplished through compare and contrast, definition, example, or the analysis of cause and effect.

Topic

Shaping the Enlisted Force for the Joint All-Domain Task Force

The U.S. Army is prioritizing the future of warfare in multi-domain operations. How do you ensure the enlisted force is prepared for Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO)? The three Ps, discussed in the article, serve as the foundation of re-orienting enlisted service-members. How are you integrating the three Ps in the development of your Soldiers? (Make sure you discuss professional commitment, perspective, and platforms to excel)

Resource Requirements

APA 6th ed. Quick Reference Card Writing Fundamentals Shaping the Enlisted Force

Expectations

1. Following the APA 6th ed. guidelines, write an expository essay. Your essay must: -be a MS Word document -include a Title page and References page -address all of the questions in the topic above -include introduction and conclusion paragraphs -be a minimum of one full page (the Title page and References page do not count toward your one-page requirement) -follow all rules of grammar, spelling, and punctuation (run a spelling and grammar check before submission) -include one reference and in-text citation properly formatted

Note: Typically, you want to write an expository essay in an objective, third-person perspective (“he,” “she,” or “it”). However, first-person (“I” or “me”) or second- person (“you”) perspective is acceptable, if you are describing a personal experience.

2. Upload and submit your essay for grading in blackboard by clicking on the Essay Submission link. 3. Your essay will be evaluated on the expectations listed above, the assignment rubric, and lesson material (review the Writing Fundamentals lesson and assignment rubric before you start your essay).

https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Journals/NCO-Journal/Archives/2020/May/Shaping-the-Enlisted-Force/



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