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Management environment

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Contents

Introduction 3

Control in the workplaces 3

Resistance and compliance in the workplaces in UK (United Kingdom) 4

Resistance and compliance in the workplaces in Singapore 6

Conclusion 9

References 10

Introduction

This research report deals with the analysis of organisations in UK and in Singapore. The scope of this research is up to UK and Australia. This report will analyse the workplaces and controls implemented in the workplace for avoiding resistance. The report will discuss the meaning of control in the workplaces. It will analyse the measures and controls which should be implemented. After this report will analyse the consequences happening in these two countries related to workplaces or organisations. These researches will be analysed and provide in depth analysis of the theories and concepts related to resistance and compliance to normative controls and direct in the workplaces. This is research report that will compare the working of both the countries on this subject. Further, the report will analyse the concepts and evidences of both the countries and provides conclusion.

Control in the workplaces

The involvement of employees in the design of the workplace is helpful in increasing employees’ engagement in the organisations (Needham, 2020). If the employees are engaged in changing the design of the workplace (Heinicke, 2018), then it would be more effective in implementing that change. It is more necessary that how they are learning things and also steps for improving the workplace. Further, the basis meaning of control is that it is a device or mechanism that is utilised to toregulate, or guide the operation of a machine or system(Ravalier, 2019).

Further, there are different controls which are used by different organisations such as strategic control means that there will be re-evaluation of a strategy because of an immediate contingent event, operational control means that control over intermediate term of operations and procedures but not business strategies, tactical control means control or supervise the particular objective of the whole plan, top down controls are called as bureaucratic controls (Adel, and Alkaraan, 2019).

Besides these, there are two major controls that are normative and direct controls. According to researcher, the normative control is the deep, subjective analysis of employees that is given in the name of the corporate world (Hodgson, 2017). Normative control is the attempt to obtain, and supervise the required efforts of members by controlling their underrated experiences, feeling and thoughts to guide their actions (Terry et al.,2021).

Under the normative control, the employees work in the best interest of the firm not because they are physically forced, or not for the financial satisfaction from the company (Sari, and Lubis, 2018). The main objective of control is not just giving punishments, evaluation of work and others. However, for the establishing the employees’ work connectivity towards organisational goals. It will also develop internal satisfaction from work (Chung, and Van der Horst, 2018). Companies use this control for increasing more satisfaction with the forms of normative control. On the other hand direct control is focuses on personal surveillance and concerns about the personal orders from one person to another (Kewo, 2017). This was majorly used when the industrialisation of work taken place. In this control was given openly and authority resided in the person of the manager. The basic meaning of this control is that it maintains the direct relationship among employees and managers (El-Nader, 2018).

Now, every control involves power. Power is the only means to implement control. Power is complex and dynamic concept it is onerous to determine its specific definition. Basically, the control and influence over the behaviour of other people with or without their consent. It is more specific, the medium through which the conflicts of interest gets automatically resolved. Control is directly related to resistance and compliance because resistance is the pressure bifurcated into flow (Lu, and Boateng, 2018). The compliance set for the volume which is divided by change in pressure.

Thus, the control maintains the employees’ relations with manager. This will help in achieving the organisational goals together.

Resistance and compliance in the workplaces in UK (United Kingdom)

According to the research, effectiveness of the companies is increased and it is measured through the balanced scorecard approach, by supervisors (Ru et al., 2018). In UK, the companies are using two direct controls that have affected on the effectiveness of the companies however this effectiveness was in opposite direction. Meanwhile, the result given in the result is positive action control was impacting on the company’s working. The ineffective of utilising this action control was not appropriate for the companies (Hafner et al.,2019).Previously, the companies were using this action control which was not fruitful. This control is a direct control it has a centralised mechanism which is implemented in the organisation.

This includes, direct monitor of work of individual employees, formal plans, standardized rules and procedures and well structure boundaries of conduct (Müller, 2017). This type of control is prone to creativity. In this the only repetitive plans should be managed. The repetitive tasks should be managed by interpersonal means through rules and procedures. The task uncertainties need a developmental mode of control depends on setting of wider goals and rules concerning employees’ attitude and behaviour (Fehr, and Schurtenberger, 2018). Further the reason of implementing this was to reach the organisational goals. In current scenario, UK companies are focussing on innovation, investment and budget according to the research (Müller, 2020). So they started using normative control for increasing innovation in the workplace. The main aim of using control is to have routine evaluation of financial performance against targets and goals. Moreover, their main objective is to increase the overall performance of the organisation for innovation and creativity. British companies believe that controlling the overall processes of outcome will be helpful in achieving goals. In UK there is trend of using two types of control that are indirect control personnel and cultural but that were not direct (Wong, and Jensen, 2020).

The main objective of using the managerial control in UK is to get the support of exploration of required resources and new options available in the market. These controls help in resolving the problems and also get a solution related to it (Lazzem, and Jilani, 2018). The understanding of management control systems is the package consisting of various systems, such as various task related to organisational processes, compensation or rewards and so on. According to reports, the controls are set by the organisation by analysing the goals (Singhania, and Mehta, 2017).

There are insufficiencies that are large scale empirical evidence that is about the mechanism that are implemented in the UK based companies. There are factors that influence the kinds of controls that are appropriate for the companies with different backgrounds (Hwang et al.,2017). The main objective of the companies is to make the global existence and also to sustain in the market. This makes the companies to work according to consequences of the goals. That is the reasons companies are using controls for employees so that they may not get distracted from the track. There is a need to investigate the categories of control systems but also individuals’ management controls such as in budgets, cost accounting, strategic goals and others (Loh et al.,2017).

The globalisation of trade and related cost competition make it obvious in order to implement control systems. However, these control systems comes in excess start harassing the employees. The effectiveness of business in UK has reached and criticised by the people because the control system in the organisation has reached to the great extend. In this type of working environment the employees cannot survive, they may be time when employees avoid taking interest in the company and may lead to less retention rate.

The research asserts that the appropriateness of management control systems for increasing innovation and creativity in the companies (Doktoralina, and Apollo, 2019). According to several research companies in UK have very high control system (Doktoralina, and Apollo, 2019); (Loh et al.,2017). The main quality which UK based companies are aspiring is innovation from employees. The innovation in companies will help the companies to resolve small barriers.

According to researches, the style used in regulating the management is bureaucratic (Caulkin, 2007). The survey in this research asserts that around 40 percent of the respondent accepts this theory around 30 per cent has accepted that it is authoritarian, and 17 per cent of the 1500 managers are accepted that their organisations are innovative (Caulkin, 2007). The research proved that the management is very controlling and overbearing (Caulkin, 2007). Further it has proved that due to this command and control management rise on performance but at the same it declines its growth (Caulkin, 2007). It is self reinforcing and domineering management that elicit a hostile reaction to this type of management (Caulkin, 2007).

The longer term consequences are supportive in this of environment. It is important to have balanced management system, with employment security and functioning stressful contract and many lead to unproductive environment. It is the leads to less accessible, less empowering, less innovative and less trust if these activities are repeated consecutively.

Resistance and compliance in the workplaces in Singapore

Singapore has different concept of organisation control which is related to organisational trust. There are few researches which explained that the control mechanisms in organisations or companies in Singapore are dysfunctional antithesis of high commitment work systems. In these companies are less successful, have less flexibility and lest adaptive. However, these controls are helpful in improving performance. Controls are the basic building blocks for feedback that procedure and learning.

Controls also created consistency in the organisation for achieving goals. The control in the organisation in this country has accepted and they are working as per the organisation. This has increased the engagement of employees and makes them understand about the importance of organisational goals. They work with team and work according to team. This makes it easier to perform their tasks as expected. The common endeavours and ability of co-operation has built control activities that are likely to encourage citizens among employees.

The use normative approach or implement indirect controls that enables coordination, communication, goals, feedback, learning and organisational goals. Excess use of indirect approach may also term as unproductive in nature. The reason behind implementing this approach is to enhance the individual progress of the organisation. They both have to be implemented by management and worked accordingly by the employees. The organisation may not necessary be consistently implemented by individual managers and it may not be necessary and noticed by employees. The individuals’ variations in expectation and experiences may impact interpretations of these activities.

Control mechanism must be promoted by the organisation and its employees in order to signal organisational goodwill and ability. Comparatively with control, trust in the organisation should more proximately impact on employees’ progress because of the effectiveness of social connectivity and exchange. It encourages between employers and employees. Trust is the positive emotions. These positive emotions make psychological resources employees can create overview and assist them to perform.

This is the best ingredient of implementing control system in the organisation because it remove employees’ insecurities. This will make them to follow new rules that are going to be implemented. Rather than forcing them to work and compliance is also necessary in the organisation for reducing the stress from the environment.

The employees’ behaviour is also to be affected by the normative controls implemented in the organisation. This involves promotion of organisational rules and values and sanctioning of norm violation. In order to underline the symbolic necessity of their uniform, there may be penalty, if any kind of loss occurred in the organisation. These controls are facilitative value in congruence in all the employees. This can also be a feature of trust. The Exchanging of common values that assists in establishing trust among organisation, and effective bonds. At the time of implementation, the organisation believes that it will increase trust among all the employers and employees. This way normative control enhances trust in the organisation.

However, companies in Singapore had a same structure as in UK but it is somewhere liberated from it. There is some more control and common ethics that are the interpersonal trust can effect affect both individual level organisation. It examines the relation between the procedure, and normative control that is separated and related to task performance and organisational trust. There are researches which treated control system as multidimensional because companies are using it effectively and in every aspect of the tasks.

In a nutshell the main objective of implement organisation control is for developing organisation trust in the Singapore countries. The country is also using the formulae of output control that means, the outcomes, products or services employees give to their customers. It means setting advanced goals, installing information system is helpful in supervising the target’s accomplishment. The rewards and sanctions are tied to goal’s accomplishment. The output control is software that developed the project may include budgets, functional requirements. This way we can expect that output control has positive steps taken by the companies for saving unnecessary projects in the company.

The measurement of goals’ accomplishment and employees’ trust can be provided clarity and predictability, which improves employees’ trust in both the organisation’s capability to deliver on the promises of customers. Thus, Singapore implemented management control according situation and there are few organisation which implemented harsh controls in order to achieve organisation goals. Further, there are several studies mentioned about the benefits of control in the organisation. Further, it also helpful in increasing organisation trust. The research also asserts if there is trust then automatically there will presence of competence and goodwill. Normative controls are not favourable by these organisations because there are formal as well as informal consequences such as violation of rules, values and ethics.

Conclusion

This report determines that two different countries are following two different concepts. One of the country is implementing the hard controls in the organisation whereas in Singapore there motive of establishing effective work culture through controls. The main objective UK based companies for implementation of controls is to get effective outcomes. On the other Singapore based company’s main focus is to .develop trust among employees with normative control. There so many findings of this report which explain that too much implementation of normative control is also ineffective. The similar condition is with the implementation of full control for achieving goals.

However, companies in Singapore had a same structure as in UK but it is somewhere liberated from it. There is some more control and common ethics that are the interpersonal trust can effect affect both individual level organisation. It examines the relation between the procedure, and normative control that is separated and related to task performance and organisational trust. There are researches which treated control system as multidimensional because companies are using it effectively and in every aspect of the tasks.

The report has revealed several researches which explained that hard control and commands does not exist for a longer term. The use normative approach or implement indirect controls that enables coordination, communication, goals, feedback, learning and organisational goals. Excess use of indirect approach may also term as unproductive in nature. The reason behind implementing this approach is to enhance the individual progress of the organisation. They both have to be implemented by management and worked accordingly by the employees. The organisation may not necessary be consistently implemented by individual managers and it may not be necessary and noticed by employees. The individuals’ variations in expectation and experiences may impact interpretations of these activities.

References

Adel, N. and Alkaraan, F., 2019. Strategic investment acquisitions performance in UK firms: the impact of managerial overconfidence. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting.

Caulkin, S. 2007. Command, control and you ultimately fail. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2007/dec/16/2. Accessed: 27th April 2021.

Chung, H. and Van der Horst, M., 2018. Flexible working and unpaid overtime in the UK: The role of gender, parental and occupational status. Social Indicators Research, pp.1-26.

Doktoralina, C. and Apollo, A., 2019. The contribution of strategic management accounting in supply chain outcomes and logistic firm profitability. Uncertain Supply Chain Management7(2), pp.145-156.

El-Nader, G., 2018. Stock liquidity and free float: Evidence from the UK. Managerial Finance.

Fehr, E. and Schurtenberger, I., 2018. Normative foundations of human cooperation. Nature Human Behaviour2(7), pp.458-468.

Hafner, R., Elmes, D., Read, D. and White, M.P., 2019. Exploring the role of normative, financial and environmental information in promoting uptake of energy efficient technologies. Journal of Environmental Psychology63, pp.26-35.

Heinicke, A., 2018. Performance measurement systems in small and medium-sized enterprises and family firms: a systematic literature review. Journal of Management Control28(4), pp.457-502.

Hodgson, D.E., 2017. Discourse, discipline and the subject: A Foucauldian analysis of the UK financial services industry. Routledge.

Hwang, B.G., Shan, M. and Supa’at, N.N.B., 2017. Green commercial building projects in Singapore: Critical risk factors and mitigation measures. Sustainable cities and Society30, pp.237-247.

Kewo, C.L., 2017. The influence of internal control implementation and managerial performance on financial accountability local government in indonesiaf. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues7(1).

Lazzem, S. and Jilani, F., 2018. The impact of leverage on accrual-based earnings management: The case of listed French firms. Research in International Business and Finance44, pp.350-358.

Loh, L., Thomas, T. and Wang, Y., 2017. Sustainability reporting and firm value: Evidence from Singapore-listed companies. Sustainability9(11), p.2112.

Lu, J. and Boateng, A., 2018. Board composition, monitoring and credit risk: evidence from the UK banking industry. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting51(4), pp.1107-1128.

Müller, J.M., 2020. Perceptualism and the epistemology of normative reasons. Synthese, pp.1-30.

Müller, M., 2017. ‘Brand-centred control’: A study of internal branding and normative control. Organization Studies38(7), pp.895-915.

Needham, C., 2020. Managerial discretion. In Discretion and the Quest for Controlled Freedom (pp. 295-312). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Ravalier, J.M., 2019. Psycho-social working conditions and stress in UK social workers. The British Journal of Social Work49(2), pp.371-390.

Ru, X., Wang, S. and Yan, S., 2018. Exploring the effects of normative factors and perceived behavioral control on individual’s energy-saving intention: An empirical study in eastern China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling134, pp.91-99.

Sari, M. and Lubis, A.D., 2018. The influence of organization’s culture and internal control to corporate governance and is impact on bumn (state-owned enterprises) corporate performance in Singapore. J. Advanced Res. L. & Econ.9, p.681.

Singhania, M. and Mehta, P., 2017. Working capital management and firms’ profitability: evidence from emerging Asian countries. South Asian Journal of Business Studies.

Terry, E., Marks, A., Dakessian, A. and Christopoulos, D., 2021. Emotional Labour and the Autonomy of Dependent Self-Employed Workers: The Limitations of Digital Managerial Control in the Home Credit Sector. Work, Employment and Society, p.0950017020979504.

Wong, C.M.L. and Jensen, O., 2020. The paradox of trust: perceived risk and public compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. Journal of Risk Research23(7-8), pp.1021-1030.

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