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Final Project PHI 108 Logical and Critical Reasoning

inal Project PHI 108 Logical and Critical Reasoning

Due Thursday, December 14th 2023 before 11:59 pm.

Description

The Final Project is an individual written project drawing upon material from the whole semester. This is a three part project: 1) Students summarize a paper (but do not write a full paper) in 400-500 words, 2) write an annotated bibliography of 3 texts from the course in 250-350 words each , and 3) answer 2 out of 10 essay questions in 450-550 words each.

Instructions

1.      Please submit the Final Project in the Assignment labeled Final Project on Brightspace. There are 3 parts (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3). Please submit as a single document, either .DOCX or as Google Doc. 240 points.

2.      If you submit your assignment as a Google Doc please be sure to set it as “anyone can view.”

3.      Read all the following instructions carefully, and be sure to complete each of the three parts.

Template for the Project:

You can copy and paste this and fill in the sections in your document (either DOCX or Google Doc).

Your text for Part 1: (400-500 words) Your text for Part 2: Text 1 (250-350 words), Text 2 (250-350 words), Text 3 (250-350 words) Your text for Part 3: Answer 1 (450-550 words), Answer 2 (450-550 words)

Part 1: Paper Proposal (400-500 words) 70 points

Please imagine a possible paper that you could write for the class. We are not writing whole papers. But if you were to write one, what would it be? Please write a 400-500 word abstract (summary) of this potential paper.

Further instructions/hints: Try to imagine vividly and express what the thesis would be, as well as the main points of your argument. A useful idea is to connect themes from different modules to each other. Be sure to address these points: What further questions might be inspired by the paper? What texts from the course would you use? (This leads to Part 2.)

**Tip: Here is a nice concise discussion of what goes in an abstract (what you are writing for this part) that you might find helpful:

https://www.solidessay.com/our-services/how-to-write-a-humanities-abstract

(part 1 continued…)

Some sample ideas to consider incorporating in your theme. Please use these as inspiration – remember, the aim is to explore a topic of your choosing – these are suggestions to help you choose a topic, but remember not to answer these questions. Come up with your own original theme/topic/thesis:

●       What is the nature of thinking?

●       What are the historical influences on logical reasoning today?

●       How does understanding logic and reasoning help in thinking more clearly?

●       How does forming a worldview happen, and how do worldview and framing language influence thinking?

●       What are some common mistakes in reasoning and why do we make them?

●       What are the differences between deductive and inductive reasoning and how we use them?

●       What makes an argument valid, invalid, sound, or strong?

●       What are scientific reasoning and the scientific method and what is the role of experiment and observation?

●       What is reasonable doubt and how can we use it to reason better and think more logically?

Your text for Part 1: (400-500 words)

Part 2: Annotated Bibliography (750-1050 words total) 90 points

Please choose one text/chapter from Modules 1-6 and two texts/chapters from Modules 7-14, for a total of 3 texts, and write for each a summary that expresses some of the main points, and explores how they connect to your paper topic.

More instructions/hints: This is like writing an annotated bibliography that could be part of the background for your proposed paper. The annotated bibliography should include summary of the text, reflection, criticism, analysis, etc. Each of the 3 entries should be between 250 and 350 words. Use any style of citation.

Tips: For the annotated bibliography in Part 2, you’re writing brief summaries and

discussions of three texts that you choose, and you will relate each of the texts back to the topic of your overall project. Here are some great hints about writing annotated bibliographies. Also here. Your text for Part 2: Text 1 (250-350 words), Text 2 (250-350 words), Text 3 (250-350 words)

Part 3: Essay Questions (900-1100 words) 80 points

Essay questions instructions: Answer 2 out of the following 10 questions in 450-550 words each. Please give complete answers that draw upon relevant parts of the texts from the course. Be sure to consult the course readings when formulating your answer. For each question, reference specific things from the text that support your answer, and take care to answer each part of the question. Feel free to consult your discussion posts, but you are writing original answers here;

make sure the answers don’t repeat discussion posts! A great answer will draw conclusions that demonstrate comprehension of the texts as well as original insight, clarity, and accuracy, both in the writing (spelling and grammar), and interpretation. Remember to work independently. When you are finishing up check: Did you answer 2 questions in 450-550 words each? Did you answer each part of each question? Did you draw upon the readings, and reference the relevant sections of the text? Did you demonstrate original insight? Did you proofread and correct grammar and spelling?

Your text for Part 3: Answer 1 (450-550 words), Answer 2 (450-550 words)

 

Questions

1.      In Chapter 1 of Clear and Present Thinking (Myers, et.al.), the authors present several historical sources of logic. Pick three sections (from sections 1.1 to 1.17) and explain the points of view of the philosophers described in them and their contributions to the history of logic and reasoning. What is special about the time, place and philosopher(s) described in the text? What concepts or ways of thinking came out of that period? What is significant about those ways of thinking? Do they play a role in contemporary science and reasoning? Explain and give examples.

2.      Pick two bad habits of thinking from Clear and Present Thinking Chapter 3 (sections 3.1 3.10) and two good habits of thinking (3.11 – 3.21) and explain them. What makes them good or bad habits? How do the bad habits lead to specific pitfalls of flawed thinking? How do the good habits lead to reliable and reasonable conclusions (like scientific truth, etc.)? Give examples and explain. How can we either avoid them if they’re bad or enhance them if they’re good habits?

3.      What is a categorical syllogism? Describe a categorical syllogism and its parts. What is an example of valid categorical syllogism? How can one tell it is valid? What is an example of an invalid categorical syllogism? How can one tell it is invalid? What is the square of opposition and what are its parts? Under what circumstances might one use a categorical syllogism? Explain and give examples.

4.      What is a deductive argument? Describe the parts of a deductive argument and their functions. How can one tell the difference between a valid argument and an invalid one? What does it mean for an argument to be sound? Choose three types of deductive arguments (5.5 to 5.14) in Chapter 5 of Clear and Present Thinking and describe them. What are their valid and invalid forms? Under what circumstances might one use these particular forms of deductive argument? Explain and give examples.

5.      What is an inductive argument? Describe the parts of an inductive argument. How can one tell the difference between a strong and a weak one? Choose three examples of kinds of inductive arguments in Chapter 5 of Clear and Present Thinking (5.14 – 5.19) and explain them. Under what circumstances might one use them? What are the strengths and advantages of inductive reasoning? What are its weaknesses? Explain.

6.      Describe the scientific method. What are its roots? What does it mean for a theory to be verifiable? What does it mean for a theory to be falsifiable? Why are these important to a scientific theory? Explain and give examples. What makes a good scientific theory? Gives some examples of scientific theories and show how they are falsifiable and verifiable. What is Ockam’s razor? How might it help to identify scientific truth? Explain and give examples.

7.      What is the meaning of “empirical” as it relates to empirical science? What is empiricism, and who are two empiricist philosophers? How does the philosophical movement known as empiricism relate to science and the scientific method (section 6.14)? What are overdetermination and underdetermination, and how do they relate to scientific truth? Explain and give examples.

8.      What is the difference between a scientific claim and scientific proof? What are the differences between necessary and sufficient conditions? Explain and give examples of each. How do necessary and sufficient conditions relate to science and scientific truth? What are some qualities that make a scientific theory good or true? In what ways could scientific claims be used to mislead, and how can one avoid being fooled? Explain and give examples.

9.      Choose four fallacies from Chapter 7 of Clear and Present Thinking and describe them. What errors do they lead to? Why are they misleading to people? What are situations in which these fallacies might appear? How could one avoid committing or falling for these fallacies? Explain and give examples.

10.   What is reasonable doubt? Describe three kinds of doubt in Clear and Present Thinking Chapter 8 (8.2 to 8.12) and how they can be helpful in sorting through confusion and uncertainty. How does each help in avoiding errors and inaccurate understandings? How do they relate to the other forms of valid and reliable reasoning (like the scientific method, deduction, and induction)? Explain and give examples.

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