Ass1 1. Watch the video linked below.

1. Watch the video linked below. (Links to an external site.)
2. Answer the following questions.
-How do germs get stuck to your skin?
-How do germs get dislodged from your skin when using soap or ethanol based hand sanitizer?
-How does soap and proper hand washing destroy the viruses and bacteria that cause illness?
(include the terms when answering the above questions. polar, nonpolar, hydrophobic, hydrophillic, soap, detergents, cell membrane, weak attractions between the phospholipids, protein, protein denaturing and unwinding.)
Remember, when cell proteins are ruined, cell function is ruined.
1. Read the following background essay.
2. Watch the linked video.–Fg (Links to an external site.)
3. Submit answers to the following questions.
-What kind of genetic defect causes cystic fibrosis (CF)?
What is the relationship between genes and proteins in the human body?
What is gene therapy?
What is the significance of the shapes of proteins for their functions in human cell membrane?
How does cystic fibrosis change the cell membrane and transport of substances across the membrane?
How does the mutation in the gene that causes CF specifically affect the functioning of the lungs?
Background Reading
The map of the human genome has provided far more than a simple list of the three billion letters that make up our genetic code. Scientists are now beginning to understand what certain groups of these letters—our genes—actually do. They estimate that about thirty thousand genes in all carry the code for every structure and function in the human body.
An important corollary to understanding proper gene function is that by doing so we gain a better understanding of gene dysfunction. Indeed, scientists have identified the genes responsible for more than two dozen diseases. So far, however, finding the genetic cause of disease has provided little more than the promise of a cure. Fixing broken genes is altogether more difficult.
A few decades ago, some scientists promised that “gene therapy” would cure a myriad of genetic diseases. Doctors would simply insert normally coded genes in place of malfunctioning ones. The normal genes would override the abnormal genes, produce whichever vital proteins were missing, and the problem would be solved. But several hurdles have stood in the way of what once appeared to be an elegant solution.
Many genetic diseases are caused by more than one gene, or are strongly influenced by environmental factors. These diseases are probably too complex to be cured through gene therapy. In an effort to cure diseases that are caused by the dysfunction of a single gene, however, many scientists are continuing to try to perfect the technique.
For gene therapy to have any long-term effect, replacement genes must be incorporated into the DNA of a huge number of a patient’s cells. If this is accomplished the genes will be replicated and passed on when cells divide. None of this can happen, though, unless the genes actually find their way into the cells’ nuclei. Herein lies the problem. DNA injected into a patient’s bloodstream has little or no chance of ending up inside the nucleus of any cell. So how do doctors get genes inside where they can be of some use? The most promising technique uses viruses as DNA delivery vehicles.
In the late 1980s, geneticists discovered that certain types of viruses, called retroviruses, could be modified to carry replacement genes into the nuclei of cells. These viruses attach whatever genetic material they carry, including the replacement genes, directly to the host’s DNA. Because viruses are human pathogens and carry inherent risks, however, progress with gene therapy has been slow.
More often than not, doctors have erred on the side of caution, stripping the viruses of their toxins and their ability to replicate, and injecting only a few thousand into the patient at a time. The effect of such cautious therapy, however, has been marginal because the number of cells receiving replacement DNA in cases like these is quite low. Leaving too much of the virus’s own DNA intact or introducing too many viruses into the patient’s system, on the other hand, can have deadly consequences.
1. Read the following background essay.
2. Watch the linked video below. (Links to an external site.)
3. Submit answers to the following questions.
-Name some advantages of drugs designed to treat problems with specific genes compared to conventional drugs, which do not target specific genes. Why are these nonconventional drugs not in widespread use today?
-Why would a doctor want to order a genetic test before prescribing the drug Kalydeco for a patient?
-Why do you think Kalydeco might be expected to work better in younger patients than in older ones?
-Why do you think that clinical breakthroughs take so long to make?
-Discuss some reasons why cost should or should not be considered in drug development.
Background Reading
As scientists continue to study the human genome, they can better understand how the different groupings of bases that make up our genes control their function. A better understanding of proper gene function offers scientists important insights into gene malfunction, which can lead to serious diseases. Scientists have successfully identified the genes responsible for hundreds of inherited diseases. But finding the genetic causes of diseases has yet to yield a bounty of ways to treat them.
Even before the Human Genome Project produced a “rough draft” of the human genetic code in 2003, scientists were already touting gene therapy as a cure for genetic diseases. Doctors might simply insert normal genes in place of malfunctioning ones. The normal genes would take over, produce the right kinds of proteins, and any problem would be solved. But this elegant solution has yet to be realized. For one inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), the biology proved much more complicated than scientists anticipated. Cystic fibrosis causes sticky mucus to block tubes and ducts in the lungs, pancreas, intestines, and other areas of the body. Because a buildup of mucus makes it easy for bacteria to grow, serious lung infections develop that, repeated over time, can severely damage the lungs. For CF patients, breathing becomes more and more difficult with time.
Cystic fibrosis was considered by many to be a prime disease candidate for gene therapy. Unlike diseases that involve multiple genes, people with CF inherit just one faulty recessive gene from each parent. However, every clinical trial failed. The modified viruses used to deliver the normal genes had trouble getting past the mucus to the cells that needed them. Even those that made it were unable to hijack the cells and replicate, as viruses normally do. So some researchers tried a different approach: they developed drug compounds to correct the function of the faulty protein made by the CF gene (CFTR). The challenge of designing a drug is daunting and involves a tremendous amount of trial and error; 600,000 compounds were tested to develop Kalydeco. Drug development timelines of 20 years or more at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars are common in pharmaceuticals.
Decades before Michael McCarrick appeared in this video, researchers identified the most common genetic defect behind the disease—three missing letters in the CFTR gene. However, there are more than a thousand other mutations that can also produce CF, and different mutations cause different defects in the CFTR protein, resulting in milder or more severe forms of the disease. The experimental drug that McCarrick took, Kalydeco, and other so-called CFTR modulators are therapies designed to correct the function of the defective protein. While the drug was not able to save McCarrick—the damage to his lungs proved too great, and he died two months after the video was made—both adult and pediatric treatment groups in a clinical trial showed improved lung function and an increase in weight and other quality of life measures, with few safety issues. Kalydeco was approved by the FDA in January 2012, becoming just the fourth drug approved to counteract the effects of a specific gene mutation to make it to market.
Watch the first 5:00min of the video linked below. Pause the video to provide brief explanations of the following terms.
Exponential growth-
Eukaryotic Cells-
Somatic Cells-
Binary Fission (Links to an external site.)
1. Watch the following video and answer questions that follow. (Links to an external site.)
-What type of reproduction — asexual or sexual — do the whiptail lizards in the video use?
-How many parents do whiptail lizards have?
-How do young whiptail lizards differ from their parents, if at all?
-How much of their parent’s genetic material do whiptail lizards have?
2. Watch the following video and answer the questions below. (Links to an external site.)
-What are the differences between the two species of minnows featured in the video?
Which species — the asexual or the sexual reproducers — tends to be more heavily parasitized by the worm that causes black-spot disease?
How are the sexual reproducers able to evolve defenses against parasites more quickly and more effectively than their asexual counterparts?

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1. Watch the video linked below. appeared first on School Core.

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1. Watch the video linked below. appeared first on My Academic Papers.


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