Step 1: Design a system safety program plan for a bulk tank railcar off-loading facility for hydrocarbon products that has the following features:
a. one railcar switch located next to an interstate highway,
b. capacity to off-load liquid hydrocarbon products,
c. two 500,000 gallon bulk liquid storage tanks for liquid hydrocarbon products,
d. two diaphragm pumps with piping between the off-loading station and the bulk liquid storage tanks,
e. one off-loading station (single-sided) that is elevated 12 feet from the ground, and
f. one switch engine for staging railcars at the off-loading station and at railcar storage tracks.
Design a minimum of a seven page system safety program plan with a minimum of five scholarly sources (books and articles, and at least one from the CSU Online Library) using the following level one headings:
1) Defined Objectives
a) Define what constitutes a catastrophic, critical, minor, and negligible accident, and explain why. Determine at what cost the prevention of the catastrophic and critical accidents are acceptable. You may elect to use a cost-benefit analysis though that is not specifically required for this assignment. Remember that a quantitative data-rich argument for controls translates much better at the executive level of management than does a qualitative argument.
b) Here is a typical cost-benefit analysis technique using Asfahl, Hammer, and Price’s (2004/2001) formula.
Benefit = Tangible Costs (direct) + Intangible Costs (indirect) x [Current Injuries – Expected Injuries]
For example, if a proposed engineering control budget for a process is set at a cost of $150,000 with a budgeted threshold accident reduction rate of 60% for a given control, you could determine the cost-benefit point with trailing metrics and an estimation of all related cost data for accidents with this process as follows.
Direct Cost Hidden Cost Frequency/Year
First aid cases 200 4000 9 Med. treatment cases 6000 9000 3.5 Lost time cases 8000 40000 1.5 No-injury cases None 4000 11
First Aid= Tangible costs = $200 + $4000 x [9 – (9 x 60%)] = $4200 x 3.6 = $15,120 Med. Treatment = $6000 + $9000 x [3.5 – (3.5 x 60%)] = $15000 x 1.4 = $21,000 Lost time = $8000 + 40000 x [1.5 – (1.5 x 60%)] = $48000 x 0.6 = $28,800 No injury = $0 + $4000 x [11.0 – (11.0 x 60%)] = $4000 x 4.4 = $17,600
Total = $85,520
Since the engineering control budget is set at $150,000, this cost-benefit analysis only supports funding controls that have a total purchase price of less than about $86,000. Consequently, other less-costly control options within the hierarchy of controls would need to be considered.
2) System Description
a) Describe the work system to include all variables of hardware, software, people, environmental conditions, and processes. This will help you as you draw your safety control structure diagram in the ninth section of this plan. Consider looking at Bahr’s narrative on pages 192-193 and drawing a description of an ammonia fill plant as an example. Be careful to not skip any variables or process steps.
3) Hazard Identification
a) Develop a preliminary hazard list (PHL), in full sentences, list and describe any potential hazards that you recognize after studying the work system.
4) Hazard Analysis
a) Conduct a what-if analysis on all identified potential hazards that you identified.
5) Risk Evaluation
a) Evaluate the identified and analyzed hazards to understand how to either control their occurrence or mitigate their effects. Consider how likely it is for each analyzed hazard to occur, then consider the amount of potential damage that could result from an incident.
6) Hazard Controls
a) All controls fall into only two categories—engineering controls or management controls; however, as discussed previously, you are going to consider all six of the controls within the preference hierarchy listed here in order of preference: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and PPE. Using the hierarchy of controls in order of preference, list at least one control for each analyzed hazard that seems to pose a risk to the work system’s safe operation. If you provided an engineering controls budget with a cost-benefit analysis in the Defined Objectives section of this plan, you will want to take any suggested control prices into consideration in this section.
7) Verification of Controls
a) Using the identified leading metrics from our summary above as well as any suggested walk-through site inspections after controls have been implemented, validate the perceived adequacy of the controls now in the system.
8) Risk Acceptance
a) Pulling heavily from peer-reviewed articles and other scholarly works such as textbooks, defend why the controls used in the system now provide acceptable risk levels to the work system and affected employees. Bahr (2015) reminds you that this section of the plan is one of the most important areas where you must defend our decisions and acceptance of risks. You can only do this effectively as scholar-practitioners with peer-reviewed literature, supporting our own informed thinking and decisions.
9) Safety Control Structure Diagram (see these instructions in the paragraph below)
a) Design a safety control structure diagram for your work system, and embed it within your system safety program plan as the content for your ninth level one heading. See picture below.
10) Planned Periodic System Review
a) Describe the frequency and level of detail at which this plan will be reviewed. Also, be sure to include who will be reviewing this plan as well as each safety program and engineering process and who will be periodically auditing all hazard identification, hazard analysis, and risk analysis work such as an internal system safety engineer or an out-sourced safety engineering consulting company.
Asfahl, C. R., Hammer, W., & Price, D. (2004/2001). Occupational & industrial safety health management and engineering (2nd Custom ed.). New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
Bahr, N. J. (2015). System safety engineering and risk assessment: A practical approach (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Manuele, F. A. (2014). Advanced safety management: Focusing on Z10 and serious injury prevention (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.