PAPER Psychology and Gender discussion questions

This week, you discussed the 1960s and the 1970s, in which both men and women began to make significant shifts from traditional gender roles.

Speculations about the differences between men and women probably predate history. The subject of the differences between men and women began to be the focus of research during the 1960s (Brannon, 2011), and this week, you expanded on these views.

In this assignment, you will define and explore what a gender stereotype includes. You will examine beliefs about psychological traits and characteristics of what society views as appropriate activities and behaviors for men and women.

During this discussion, you will evaluate the history of stereotypes about women and men.

Answer the following questions:

In your opinion, has feminism in the United States been guilty of exclusion based on race and social class? Why or why not? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Have there been any particular cultural groups that had a difficult time identifying themselves as feminists? If yes, why do you think this happened?
Using the Internet, conduct research on the National Coalition for Men (NCFM), an organization that opposes sexism. The NCFM questions whether sexism oppresses men more than women. What do you think?
How did the male gender role conceptualize masculinity? Identify how and why this was a potential contributor to the problems for both men and women.
Refer to the Webliography under the category Feminist Movements to review some resources for obtaining research information on this topic.

Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your textbook and course readings. Start reviewing and responding to at least two of your classmates as early in the week as possible. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Using questions and seeking clarifications are good ways to make your reviews substantive!

Part 2

A gender stereotype consists of beliefs about the psychological traits and characteristics of men and women (Yarber, Sayad, & Strong, 2010). Gender roles are defined by behaviors, but gender stereotypes are beliefs and attitudes about masculinity and femininity (Yarber et al., 2010).

According to Bem (1981), gender roles furnish the material for gender stereotypes. This is because when people associate a pattern of behavior with men or women, they tend to overlook individual variations and draw conclusions about the behavior associated with a particular gender.

Recently, social media has captured public and political debates containing gender disparities that may add to oppression and gender stereotyping.

In the United States, sexism toward women has always been an issue in advertising, especially in the 1950s. Women have traditionally been expected to fulfill gender-specific roles, such as rearing children, cleaning, and cooking. Today’s society has evolved to a place where such discrimination is discouraged and looked down upon. Men too have experienced gender bias, especially those who embraced roles typically associated with women (for example, nursing and stay-at-home dads).

In your exploration of these concepts, your response should include answers to the following:

Other than in gender-specific areas (for example, in trade magazines, on television, in movies, in political debates, in video games, on the Internet, and in cartoons), how do images represent genders inaccurately or unfairly? Be sure to define gender, gender roles, and gender stereotypes.
How does the media impact people’s views about gender stereotypes—the concept of being male or female?
A gender stereotype consists of beliefs about the physiological traits and characteristics as well as the activities appropriate to men or women. Who determines what is appropriate?
How does the media influence this perception of appropriateness and gender roles?
References:

Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing.
Psychological Review, 88(4), 354–364.

Yarber, W., Sayad, B., & Strong, B. (2010). Looseleaf for human sexuality: Diversity
in contemporary America. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Part 3

Describe and discuss the major theories regarding psychology and gender. Include in the discussion your views of social-cognitive theory of gender development and the gender schema theory.

In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:

Describe and explain at least two of the major theories.
Compare the two theories from this week’s readings as they relate to gender.
On the basis of your research, explain which theory you find more accurate and why. Provide details as to why you feel the way you do, supporting your response with text references and additional citations from scholarly articles.
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your textbook and course readings. Start reviewing and responding to at least two of your classmates as early in the week as possible. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Using questions and seeking clarifications are good ways to make your reviews substantive!

Part 4

In this week, you reviewed the research theories on sexual development. Now, examine and discuss the similarities and differences in sexual development in the genders.

In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:

Examine, describe, and share the similarities and differences between premenstrual syndrome and testosterone aggression.
Compare variations in sexual development in the genders.
Support your responses with information from the following resources from the South University Online Library:

Research in the psychology of men and masculinity using the gender role strain paradigm as a framework

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: Implications for behavioural evolution

Self-regulation of gendered behavior in everyday life

You can refer to the following optional resources at EBSCOhost:

Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A
meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8(4), 291–322.

Campbell, A., & Muncer, S. (1994). Sex differences in aggression: Social
representations and social roles. The British Journal of Social
Psychology, 33(2), 233–240.

Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993). Sex differences in emotional intensity: A
social role explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
65(5), 1010–1022.

Ritter, D. (2003). Effects of menstrual cycle phase on reporting levels of
aggression using the Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire.
Aggressive Behavior, 29(6), 531–538.

Susman, E. J., Inoff-Germain, G., Nottelmann, E. D., Loriaux, D., Cutler,
G. B., Jr., & Chrousos, G. P. (1987). Hormones, emotional
dispositions, and aggressive attributes in young adolescents.
Child Development, 58(4), 1114–1134.

Part 5

The reason girls lack interest in mathematics may be due to culturally communicated messages (Eccles, 2007). Social cultural factors and conformity to gender expectations play a key role.

The socialization of gender roles and the use of a hidden gender-biased curriculum lead to inequitable education for boys and girls (Eccles, 2007).

As the quality of instruction and the curriculum affects children’s learning, so does the value that our society, educators, and families place on boys’ or girls’ learning or education (Kahle, 2004; Liu, 2006). Girls are likely to perform as well as boys when encouraged to succeed (Eccles, 1987).

In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:

Identify and analyze whether there is any biological evidence for differences in cognitive abilities due to gender. Explain with evidence from research on whether there is a difference in our biological brain development.
Describe at least one new fact about male and female gender cognitive differences, if any.
Describe whether there are any spatial performance differences between males and females. Analyze and justify whether video games improve spatial skills.
Identify the differences that are evident in the types of activities that males and females participate in. From this week’s readings and lectures, explain whether there is a disproportionate number of boys gifted in mathematics than girls and why.
References:

Eccles, J. S. (1987). Gender roles and achievement patterns: An expectancy value
perspective. In S. Sander, J. M. Reinisch, & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.),
Masculinity/femininity: Basic perspectives (pp. 240–280). New York, NY:
Oxford University Press.

Eccles, J. S. (2007). Where are all the women? Gender differences in participation
in physical science and engineering. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds.),
Why aren’t more women in science? Top researchers debate the evidence
(pp. 199–210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kahle, J. B. (2004). Will girls be left behind? Gender differences and accountability.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(10), 961–969.

Liu, F. (2006). School culture and gender. In C. Skelton, B. Francis, & L. Smulyan
(Eds.), The Sage handbook of gender and education (pp. 425–438).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your textbook and course readings. Start reviewing and responding to at least two of your classmates as early in the week as possible. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Using questions and seeking clarifications are good ways to make your reviews substantive!

Part 6

You have begun to explore the impact of social class, ethnicity, and gender on identity and the functions of roles in social organization. In addition, you will consider family life, work, violence, sexuality, and the possibilities for social change. In this discussion, you will explore sexual harassment concerns in the workplace for both men and women.

Review the case story of twenty-five-year-old Lois Jenson, who endured sexual harassment in the iron mines of Minnesota and later filed and won the first class-action sexual harassment lawsuit, Jenson v. Eveleth Mines.

You can review the story by accessing the following resource from the South University Online Library:

Class action: The story of Lois Jenson and the landmark case that changed sexual harassment law

In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:

Reflect on the case study of Jenson. What is your opinion of the case? What do you agree with, and on what do you differ?
Research and explain three types of sexual harassment.
Analyze and explain whether the aspect of sex role spillover creates stereotyping and a sexualized atmosphere.
Review and analyze the attached sample sexual harassment policy. Identify specific elements that are designed to protect individuals and suggest additional items for consideration. Support your reasoning with references.
Part 7

We would all agree that there is some level of stress in everyone’s life. The stress response may be quite similar for each of us; however, there are distinct differences in the way women and men experience and respond to stress.

In your exploration of these concepts, respond to the following:

Looking beyond the United States, do women live longer than men globally? Lifestyle differences may account for some differences in longevity and mortality rates. What are some of the differences in gender variations around the world? How do they impact gender, health, and longevity?
What are some coping strategies?
How does the social support system play a role in gender longevity? Are there gender differences in violent deaths? Validate your response with supporting research.
Review the resources in the Webliography under the category Stress.

Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your textbook and course readings. Start reviewing and responding to at least two of your classmates as early in the week as possible. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Using questions and seeking clarifications are good ways to make your reviews substantive!

Part 8

Do you know that gender bias occurs in the treatment of psychological disorders? Doctors are more likely to diagnose depression in women compared to men, even when both women and men have similar scores on standardized measures of depression or present with identical symptoms. Men are also more likely (more than three times) to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder than women (Leedom, 2007).

Read the following two case studies in which the gender is not identified.

Case Study A

Client X is a thirty-year-old parent of a new child (second child). X has a history of physical and sexual abuse as a child. X earned a General Educational Development (GED) at the age of twenty and has had intermittent employment, with the longest job lasting eight months. X’s mother has a history of untreated depression. As a teenager (likely to deal with the symptoms resulting from the trauma X experienced), X began drinking and smoking marijuana. At twenty-five, X began using heroin. X has been psychiatrically hospitalized three times following a suicide attempt at the age of sixteen and recurring suicidal thoughts. X frequently cuts self as a release and sometimes cuts too deep. X is facing eviction and has limited treatment. Current diagnoses are depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and polysubstance abuse. There is no program in which X can receive comprehensive integrated treatment for both disorders. X has recently been ordered to complete an assessment at your agency and to enter and complete a batterers’ intervention program as a result of a recent domestic violence arrest in which X has been identified as the perpetrator.

Case Study B

Client Z is thirty-two years old and has a fifteen-year history of addiction, including a two-year history of crack addiction. Z has been in a variety of psychiatric and substance abuse treatment programs during the past ten years. Z’s longest clean time has been fourteen months. Z has been attending a dual-diagnosis outpatient clinic for the past nine months and going to Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meetings off and on for several years. Z has been clean from all substances for seven months. The following is a list of high-risk relapse factors and coping strategies identified by Z and Z’s counselor:

Z is tired and bored with “just working, staying at home and watching television, or going to NA meetings.” Recently, Z has been thinking about how much Z “misses the action of the good old days” of hanging out with old friends and thinks has not enough things to do that are interesting. Z has been referred to you for a recent drug arrest and a violation of a restraining order. Z cries often and has a history of bulimia and some type of body dimorphic risks. Z appears fixated on body size and weight and avoids social activities as a result of body discomfort.
Z is unemployed and is running out of unemployment compensation and has a sporadic employment history. Z describes current relationship as a safety net and is afraid of becoming more alone, lonely, and erratic if the partner leaves. On the basis of your inquiry, you discover that Z:
Has a history of eating disorders.
Has a long history of multiple partners and cheating on partners.
Has a history of noncompliance with medications.
Has had one prior treatment three years ago, which was initiated due to a suicide attempt; however, Z denies any current thoughts, plans, or dreams of harming self (suicidal ideation).
Denies any homicidal ideation at this time (no attendance to any self-help programs, such as eating support groups, Alcoholics Anonymous [AA], or NA).
Is at risk for homelessness.
Has no current AA or NA sponsor.
Has a limited support system.
On the basis of these two case studies, respond to the following:

Analyze the case studies and try to identify the gender in each case and possible diagnoses. Support your position with detailed facts and references to the readings.
Examine gender-related differences, gender biases, and gender inequity diagnosis concerns.
Provide the stand of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Counseling Association (ACA) on this particular topic.
Locate and evaluate the ethical suggestions of the ACA and the APA to assist your skills and ethical directions to help prevent gender bias and gender stereotyping when diagnosing clients. Describe how these ethical suggestions can be improved.
Describe whether the individuals in these case studies are homosexuals and how clinicians should interact with them in an ethical and supportive way. Support your response with the APA guidelines on this subject.
Part 9

Depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and high rates of comorbidity are significantly related to interconnected and co-occurrent risk factors, such as gender-based roles, stressors, and negative life experiences and events (World Health Organization, n.d.). In this discussion, review the research on treatment differences in genders.

In your discussion, address the following:

How does gender play a critical determinant in mental health and mental illness?
Disorders such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints predominately occur in women, affecting approximately one in three people in the community and constitute serious public health problems (World Health Organization, n.d.). Why do you think this occurs, and what are the implications for the family and society?
Why are men more likely (more than three times) to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder than women? Provide a brief explanation supported with research.
Why should we be careful not to gender-type mental disorders?
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your textbook and course readings. Start reviewing and responding to at least two of your classmates as early in the week as possible. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be sure to be honest, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Using questions and seeking clarifications are good ways to make your reviews substantive!

Reference:

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Gender and women’s mental health: Gender
disparities and mental health: The facts. Retrieved from http://www.who.
int/mental_health/prevention/genderwomen/en/

Part 10

Search the Internet and locate one gender-specific treatment center for men and one for women. Evaluate the services offered at each center. How are they similar and different? Do you feel they address the gender barriers to treatment identified in Part 1?

Briefly, in a minimum of 200–300 words, respond to the following:

What is gender-specific or gender-sensitive counseling?
How are gender-specific facilities similar and different? What makes them gender specific?
How does sex role stereotyping occur in psychotherapeutic practice? Provide an example.
What are the similarities and differences between treatment barriers for men and women?
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