Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Please read the meta-analysis about coffee consumption and cancer, as well as the meta-analysis about coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease.

Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2013/11/07/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005925

Coffee and cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep33711

Choose at least five (5) of the prompts below to respond to. You will do five (5) responses for each article. (10 points per response)

Questions:

1. Can epidemiological methods detect small increases in risk?

2. How can we reconcile inconsistencies between animal and human data?

3. How can we use incomplete or equivocal epidemiological data?

4. How can results be interpreted when the finds of epidemiological studies disagree?

5. How may publication bias affect the relationship between coffee consumption and various cancers/CVD? In which direction, would the relationship be biased?

6. How has epidemiological evidence shaped the policy regarding the labeling of coffee products as potentially cancer-causing or CVD related? Do you think there is enough evidence to support the labelling of coffee products?

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